How the Cosmos Works
The cosmos is finite, but the universe in which our cosmos resides is infinite.
The cosmos is a finite, orderly, and tangible system created by God, at the instant of what is commonly referred to as the "Big Bang". Who knows? There may be an infinite number of cosmoses in the universe. Since God is infinite, the number of his material creations may also be infinite. The cosmos we live in, however, is composed of a finite total mass, made up of an infinite number of particles decreasing in size until the smallest becomes infinitely small in mass. At some point these particles are too small to be measured. It is understandable why we mistakenly see these moving particles as something altogether different than matter, namely, "energy" or "dark energy" or cosmic rays or heat energy. Actually, energy is nothing more than particles of matter in motion.
It is in the Spirit of God that we live and move and have our being. (Acts 17: 28) However, there will never be a scientific proof for the existence of God, or for his having created the cosmos. If the cosmos is part of something bigger, then distances between cosmoses, in the universe, would be too great for us to physically explore, so this question will never be answered by use of the scientific process either. In this natural state, as mere biological human beings, we will never acquire the ability, through science, to observe another big bang or travel to another cosmos. However, there are some incredible events that we can be reasonably sure of predicting through our present scientific way of thinking. One such event is the coming destruction of our planet. Another is the death of our sun. Both these events are easily ascertained within the present scientific paradigm. However, there are other phenomena which science has the ability to predict but cannot predict using the present paradigm. The following cosmic question is just one example of what I am talking about. The question is this. Will the cosmos eventually collapse or not? In recent years, we have collected enough scientific evidence to prove that our own cosmos is expanding at a faster and faster rate. What we cannot be sure of, without a major paradigm shift in scientific thinking is whether or not the force of gravity will eventually cause the expansion of the cosmos to slow and then collapse inward, upon itself. This paradigm shift is coming, however, and it will change the way we look at everything through our scientific eyes, forever. With that shift in the way we visualize the mechanics of our cosmos, we will be able to answer this question definitively, although it seems impossible to do so now. The bible has already given us the correct answer, by saying that the cosmos will collapse, be folded up by God like a vesture and changed, but the bible is not a science book, nor was it meant to be one. (Hbr. 1:10-12) The bible and science can never be synchronized but they can both be right. We just need to understand the unique perspectives of each. The bible approaches all truth from an all knowing position, while science deals with only material facts, starting at a point of total ignorance, then learning one workable hypothesis, as a prerequisite for learning another, and then another, each piece of knowledge building on the last, all reached by trial and error. Some times a collection of seemingly rock solid scientific facts can lead to numerous practical solutions in everyday life, giving the impression that we know more than we really do about the bigger picture and contradicting what the bible says. Our scientific approach, however, will eventually always suffer a breakdown. After each general breakdown, comes an epiphany, then a paradigm shift, usually ushered in through great minds by a preponderance of the experimental evidence. Unlike the bible, science, itself, can not be anything other than agnostic. However, since it does not look at things from an all knowing perspective, it followings the ebbs and flows of collective human thought, no matter how rational or irrational that collective thought is at any one point in time. That collective thought must now go through a major paradigm shift to be able to understand how the cosmos really works on a grand scale. However, once humans make the leap to higher ground in that collective mental way of thinking, it will be easy for any school child to understand why our cosmos will collapse instead of expand outward forever.
Having finished what I believe is a necessary preamble to my discussion of the main topic on how the universe works, lets now look at what the evidence is saying, strictly from a scientific standpoint. It is impossible to do this without letting go of some previous ways of thinking. In other words, forget the books we have read, forget the answers we have parroted back to our teacher in order to pass the test. Instead, Let's just look at the evidence for what I am saying. We can use Google as our fact finder. Simply let the preponderance of recently discovered evidence draw its own image in our minds and completely erase the old preconceived ideas programmed into our mind from a variety of sources. In short, we must let our mind experience a paradigm shift. We can facilitate this by reading a sentence I have written and then asking the following question. Is there evidence that supports what he is saying here? Does it make sense? If not, email me and give me your evidence to the contrary.
Recent scientific data all points to the conclusion that the material foundation supporting the changing structure of the entire cosmos really is much easier to understand than present scientific thought is willing or able to accept. The voice of the evidence is deafening. However, no one is listening. This always happens just before a paradigm shift takes place. What I am about to say is radically different, yet totally understandable by means of human reasoning alone. To date, I have found no one who can logically refute anything I am saying here.
The foundation of the next great paradigm shift in scientific thinking is the realization of the following. All material substance including what we call energy has mass, since it is affected by gravity. Therefore energy is nothing more than varying sizes of sub atomic particles of matter in motion.
The gravity produced by black holes attracts everything including all forms of what we now call energy. Therefore, what we previously considered to be a completely different entity, is now proven to possess the same major characteristic which defines matter. That characteristic is mass. We know that everything called energy is moving. With this observation, the logical hypothesis could reasonably be that all energy is nothing more than very small sub atomic particles in motion. If this is true, then every material phenomenon in the entire cosmos should become a proof or disproof of what I am hypothesizing here. Follow me down this road, with this thought in mind, and let's see where it leads.
Is it too preposterous to suppose that all particles are composed of smaller particles, which become so small, that they become unrecognizable as matter? If this is true, it would be very easy for science to label them as something totally different, such as light, or gamma rays, weak force, gravity, magnetic force, or maybe dark matter or dark energy. Yet, they could be nothing more than extremely small, and thus hard to detect particles of matter in motion. This very small particle theory, if true, could form the basis for a universal understanding of everything. It could explain how every observable phenomenon, in our cosmos, works. Ideas like dark matter, dark energy, anti matter, gravity, nuclear force, time, the speed limit of light and the formation of planets, stars, galaxies could possibly all be explained by this one universal theory.
All matter in our cosmos is now expanding outward, from a point of singularity and is propelled by an unknowable originating force, in all directions, from that point of singularity. This matter interacts with itself by following one of only three rules.
1. A particle or body in motion collides with another particle or body of matter in its path, of a certain range of mass to itself.
2. A particle, or body in motion, continues in one direction, from its initial point of creation (singularity), on a trajectory influenced, to some degree, by every other particle created at that point of singularity (butterfly effect), following a path of least resistance. (Hawkins is correct in his determination that the initial big bang was not uniform in particle distribution. (If it where, I wouldn't be here and neither would you.)
3. A particle or body in motion enters into an orbit, with other particles or bodies, of a certain range in mass, trajectory and velocity to itself.
Motion is stored in orbital states and so-called energy releases are caused by collisions which disrupt these peaceful orbits.
Force of motion is stored in orbital states in matter. When a body in space, less massive than a black hole, is bombarded by smaller masses in space, some particles enter into orbits following rule 3, but many more collide with other particles as they travel through this body in space causing peaceful orbital states of matter within this body to be disrupted. Some of these very tiny disrupted particles are hurled out of their orbits and into the space outside the larger body in which they have resided, where their motion has been passively controlled, by their orbits. When this is done on a observable scale, it is usually referred to, as some type of "energy" release.
This very small particle concept is the key to understanding how gravity works.
Seemingly discrete bodies in space are measurably and mutually attracted by a vague term we call gravity. (However, there are an infinite number of particles in our cosmos which are too small to be detected) Understanding this small particle concept, allows us to explain why the third rule of matter interaction, which is the tendency of bodies of matter to enter into orbits, is the key to understanding how gravity works. Particles, which are much smaller in mass than electrons, continually escape a body and travel into the space beyond. As they travel outward, they obey one of the three rules already mentioned. Orbital opportunities are found, by some of these very tiny particles, as they enter into the interior of other bodies in space. With each new orbit created, a slight void is also created, which allows other particles to fall toward that void thus following a path of least resistance, and on and on it goes, creating the effect we call gravity. These very small particles escape a body in space at a rate which is inversely proportional to the mass of that body. As these very small particles leave a body in space and then enter into and travel through another body in space, they do one of three things. They either miss other particles associated with the body they are traveling through, or they collide with other particles in that body, or they enter into orbits around other particles inside that body. A relatively greater void is created by a more massive body in space, since it's greater mass provides more orbiting opportunities. It also does not allow its own particles to escape it's borders at as fast a rate as those escaping from a less massive body. The greater the difference in mass between two bodies in space, the greater the range of trajectory and velocity can be, and still have a successful orbit established. When the relative velocities and trajectories of the two bodies are within the proper range, then the smaller body will enter into an orbit around the larger. This interaction between two bodies in space happens on an infinitely smaller and smaller scale, where the gain or loss of mass to either body is too small to be measured. The orbiting phenomenon of particles allows matter to compress more efficiently in less space. However, there are fewer orbiting opportunities for these very small sub atomic particles, than there are collisions, until the larger mass approaches the density of a black hole. Never the less, there are still enough orbiting opportunities being created to continually cause a relative void to form in the direction of the larger body, which causes the smaller body to continually fall toward the larger body causing it to orbit around the larger body of a certain range in mass to itself. As I have said before, this happens on an infinite scale. Alignment of the molecules and atoms in a body can amplify this effect, (magnetic force) such as that seen in a steel magnet, but the principle is the same. This basic principle explains orbiting planets, stars, and also provides a basic understanding of how electromagnetism and nuclear bounding in the nucleus of atoms works.
This phenomenon creates a relative weak force in matter, when dealing with masses the size of planets and stars. At these masses, there are many more opportunities for collisions, than for orbiting. These collisions are what eventually activate self sustaining nuclear chain reactions in bodies compressed by gravity into the spherically shaped mass of stars. Continual creation of orbital states (gravity) holds the potential star together, while the overwhelming number of collisions, happening at the same time, set it ablaze, igniting what science calls a self sustaining nuclear reaction, where very small particles are hurled back into space, in different forms of so called radiation. (I do not have the mathematical calculations to prove what I am saying here, but perhaps some one out there can take on this task). Bodies in space the size of planets do not have the critical mass to ignite a nuclear reaction. Stars do.
Black holes are good examples of bodies, massive enough, to provide many more orbiting opportunities, relative to collisions.
Black holes provide such a large number of orbiting opportunities, relative to collisions, that the vacuum created between a black hole, and any object entering into its event horizon, sucks apart recognizable elements entering the event horizon, by breaking apart the orbital states, which have been holding together the nuclear bound of protons and neutrons. Outside the event horizon, matter is drawn, by the law of orbits toward the relatively strong vacuum, created by a black hole, compressing matter into smaller and smaller spaces as matter falls toward the black hole. Orbiting opportunities are not found in the quantity of those located in the interior of a black hole. Collisions happen much more predominately, creating the observable phenomena of planets, stars and galaxies. Particle collisions in matter massive enough to create stars provide enough collective force in their collisions to allow the smashed particles to escape in the form of what science calls heat, light, x rays, gamma rays, etc. Star creations are good examples of matter being drawn into itself by the force created by the law of orbits, into a mass that is large enough to promote a nuclear reaction, but not massive enough to produce enough orbital opportunities to quench that same nuclear reaction, as does a black hole. Common sense seems to tell us that all matter in the cosmos will eventually be incorporated into black holes. Eventually, all black holes will come together and lastly all orbital motion will wind down returning everything to a point of singularity. In the way I have just described, black holes are responsible for the creation of a galaxy. I wish I could do a better job of explaining this. Perhaps at some point in the future, some one will be born with enough common sense, and lack of herd mentality, to do a better job. Maybe it will be one of my great, great Grandchildren.
A black hole resides at the center of every galaxy.
By the law of orbits, a quiet state is created within the event horizon, where very few collisions, versus orbits, take place. At the same time, it creates the void necessary outside the event horizon, to concentrate these tiny sub atomic masses of particles into gas nebula, stars and planets, which make up a visible galaxy.
Particle collisions create everything man calls energy from the fire burning in a fire place, to atomic reactions. When the electron clouds in compounds are bombarded by enough of these very small undetectable sub atomic particles, causing some to travel outside the main body of matter, we have a chemical reaction, also called an exothermic reaction by chemists. Peaceful orbital bounds between electron clouds are broken, and the chemical compound breaks up into more elemental compounds and elements, as the reaction continues, reducing the critical number of orbits in electron clouds necessary to hold the atoms of a compound together. The reaction becomes self sustaining, when fueled by enough collisions to create a self sustaining breakup of these peaceful orbital states. An example of this would be holding a burning match to paper until the paper catches fire. In a chemical reaction, nuclear bounds between protons and neutrons remain in place. The reason for this is because the nuclei of atoms have many more orbital states, which create a bond too strong for a chemical reaction, involving particles emitted from electron clouds to break apart until the outside force acting on these nuclei reaches a critical mass, such as the mass of a star. However, both phenomena are explained by what I like to call the law of orbits.
A nuclear reaction requires much greater collision force. However, once enough peaceful orbital states are destroyed, turning orbiting particles into missiles, which collide, releasing the force stored in their orbits, a self sustaining nuclear chain reaction occurs. When it finally gets going, there are many more orbital states to be turned into collisions, which release the much greater force observed in a nuclear reaction, compared to that in a chemical reaction.
The law of orbits basically explains two major characteristics of matter.
The first characteristic it explains is the tendency of matter to congeal into larger and larger masses in space through the vacuum created by particles entering into orbital states. (Gravity) The second characteristic, which it explains, is the ability of matter to enter into self sustaining exothermic chemical or nuclear reactions, when a body or bodies smaller in mass than a black hole is compacted enough to allow collisions to break apart enough orbits, causing a self sustaining chain reaction of collisions. (Energy Release).
The general timeline flow of the process we are witnessing, concerning the cosmos is:
1. Big bang 2. Propulsion of very tiny sub atomic particles outward from the point of singularity (Creation) 3. Condensation of some of these particles almost immediately into the mass of a black hole and others condensing much later into gaseous nebulas (By the law of orbits), then planets and stars has they are drawn by gravity (Law of orbits) into the ever more confined space surrounding the black holes amongst them. 4. What happens to bring black holes together? Hey man, give me some time on this one. common sense says the little ones will be swallowed up by the bigger ones. However, you know, I could use a little help here, from some of you young men and women who are not under the sway of the of the wicked one. ( 1 John 5:19) Its very possible that the largest black hole in the cosmos will eventually consume the others but that still doesn't get us back to the point of singularity. Does it? However, the bible doesn't say that everything will return to a point of singularity. It says, "Be folded up and changed".
The theory of the law of orbits gives a unifying explanation for the phenomena man calls gravity, electromagnetism and nuclear force.
This is a universal law that many scientists have spent their lives trying to discover. I believe the Holy Spirit quickened this information to my mind. I am a layman and have nothing to gain whatsoever by publishing this information on the web. If it is true, God gets the glory and if it is false, then it is a product of my faulty imagination. I have no scientific reputation to protect. As a matter of fact, I welcome input from anyone, who is able to prove these ideas to be false.
The mechanical theories I am purposing here for the behavior of all matter in the cosmos also explains why time slows down as a body speeds up.
Briefly, since matter is made up of smaller and smaller particles, at some point particles impacted by a body, traveling through space, are too small to initiate a noticeable influence of collisions or orbits within the body. Instead, Some pass completely through a body traveling through space. However, these extremely small particles do exert drag on the much larger orbiting particles within the body causing them to slow down, as they pass through. The faster a body travels, the more of these small particles pass through. The internal clock of a body in space is set by velocities of orbiting particles. Increased velocity of a body causes increased drag on orbital states within that body, causing orbiting particles to slow, thus slowing time. when the body (Like a satellite) slows down, drag decreases, but assimilation of particles into orbital states remains constant causing the speed of orbiting particles to increase to their former velocities, thus resetting the clock. This principle works much the same way with an increase in the mass of a body in space. I would expect time to run a little slower on the sun than on the earth.
Short definition of gravity:
Written by: Wayne Wade
Other Interesting Facts
If the cosmos where half as massive, light would travel twice as fast.
It is theoretically possible to travel faster than the speed of light by using a engine with the density of a black hole to create a void in front of our space ship for it to continually fall into. Traveling near the speed of light would do crazy things like slow time way down. I don't want to expand on that idea now. Building a warp drive would be hard but avoiding obstacles in your path would be harder. Speeds outside the cosmos could be many times the speed of light depending on the amount of fuel for thrust which could be carried onboard, because a warp drive engine would not work outside the cosmos in the emptiness of space.